Our knowledge of orthopaedics. Your best health.

from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

Diseases & Conditions



Staying Healthy


Intoeing means that when a child walks or runs, the feet turn inward instead of pointing straight ahead. It is commonly referred to as being "pigeon-toed."

Intoeing is often first noticed by parents when a baby begins walking, but children at various ages may display intoeing for different reasons. Three conditions can cause intoeing:

  • Metatarsus adductus (the foot turns inward)
  • Tibial torsion (the shinbone turns inward)
  • Femoral anteversion (the thighbone turns inward)

In the vast majority of children younger than 8 years old, intoeing will correct itself without the use of casts, braces, surgery, or any special treatment.

Intoeing by itself does not cause pain, nor does it lead to arthritis. A child whose intoeing is associated with pain, swelling, or a limp should be evaluated by an orthopaedic surgeon.


The conditions that cause intoeing — metatarsus adductus, tibial torsion, and femoral anteversion — can occur on their own or in association with other orthopaedic problems.

Each of these conditions may run in families. Because they are the result of developmental or genetic differences, these conditions usually cannot be prevented.

Metatarsus Adductus

Metatarsus adductus is when a child's feet bend inward from the middle part of the foot to the toes. Some cases may be mild and flexible, and others may be more obvious and rigid. Severe cases of metatarsus adductus may partially resemble a clubfoot deformity.

Metatarsus adductus
Metatarsus adductus in an infant.
Courtesy of Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children
  • Metatarsus adductus improves by itself most of the time, usually over the first 4 to 6 months of life.
  • Babies aged 6 to 9 months with severe deformity or feet that are very rigid may be treated with casts or special shoes with a high rate of success.
  • Surgery to straighten the foot is rarely required.

Metatarsus adductus is a different condition than clubfoot, which is a more severe foot deformity that requires treatment soon after birth.

Learn more about Clubfoot

Tibial Torsion

Tibial torsion occurs if the child's lower leg (tibia) twists inward. This can occur before birth, as the legs rotate to fit in the confined (limited) space of the womb. After birth, an infant's legs should gradually rotate to align properly. If the lower leg remains turned in, the result is tibial torsion.

When the child begins walking, the feet turn inward because the tibia in the lower leg, just above the foot, points the foot inward. As the child grows taller, the tibia usually untwists.

Tibial torsion
Tibial torsion in a young child.
Courtesy of Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children
  • Tibial torsion almost always improves without treatment, and usually before school age.
  • Splints, special shoes, and exercise programs do not help.
  • Surgery to re-set the bone may be done in a child who is at least 8 to 10 years old and has a severe twist that causes significant walking problems.

Femoral Anteversion

Femoral anteversion (also known as excessive femoral torsion) occurs when a child's thighbone (femur) turns inward. It is often most obvious at about 5 or 6 years of age.

The upper end of the thighbone, near the hip, has an increased twist, which allows the hip to turn inward more than it turns outward. This causes both the knees and the feet to point inward during walking. Children with this condition often sit in the "W" position, with their knees bent and their feet flared out behind them.

Intoein due to femoral anteversion
An example of a child with intoeing due to increased femoral anteversion.
Courtesy of Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children
  • Femoral anteversion spontaneously corrects — corrects on its own — in most children as they grow older.
  • Studies have found that special shoes, braces, and exercises do not help.
  • Surgery is usually not considered unless the child is older than 9 or 10 years and has a severe deformity that causes tripping and gait abnormalities.
  • When surgery is recommended, it involves cutting the femur and rotating it into proper alignment.
OrthoKids logo

Learn more about this topic at POSNA's OrthoKids website:


Last Reviewed

June 2024

AAOS does not endorse any treatments, procedures, products, or physicians referenced herein. This information is provided as an educational service and is not intended to serve as medical advice. Anyone seeking specific orthopaedic advice or assistance should consult his or her orthopaedic surgeon, or locate one in your area through the AAOS Find an Orthopaedist program on this website.