Our knowledge of orthopaedics. Your best health.

from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

Diseases & Conditions



Staying Healthy

Helmet Safety

No matter what your age or level of experience, whenever you ride a bike or scooter, in-line skate, skateboard, snow ski, or engage in other activities during which your head is vulnerable to injury, you should always wear a helmet. In fact, many states have laws that require helmet use.

Wearing a bike helmet while riding a bicycle reduces the risk of a serious head and injury by nearly 70% and of a fatal head injury by 65%, according to a major 2016 study of worldwide bike helmet use.

Helmets should be worn during every ride, no matter how short. Many accidents happen near home.

Children under the age of 12 should also wear helmets when sledding.

Why Helmets Should Be Worn

According to the National Safety Council, in 2020, there were 1,260 preventable bicycle-related deaths and more than 325,000 preventable bike-related injuries in the U.S.

Cuts, bruises, and even broken bones will heal, but damage to your brain can be permanent. Even a low-speed fall can result in serious head injury. Many such disabling injuries can be prevented by wearing a helmet.

How Helmets Protect You

When you are wearing a helmet during a fall or crash, the force of impact is distributed over the surface of the helmet, rather than concentrated on the head.

In addition, the thick plastic foam (firm polystyrene) inside the hard outer shell of a helmet provides protection that cushions the blow.

You should always purchase a new helmet after a significant crash. Even if the helmet appears fine, the interior may be damaged.

Choosing a Helmet

Discount department stores, sporting goods stores, and bicycle shops offer many models of helmets that are typically priced around $20 and up.

Be sure to choose a helmet that meets the standards of the Consumer Product Safety Commission or the Snell Memorial Foundation. These standards have been raised, so if you have an old helmet, it may be time to get a new one.

Take some time trying on helmets and choose one with the right size and fit. According to the Snell Memorial Foundation, you should try a helmet on for 5 to 10 minutes to ensure proper fit. A helmet should be:

  • Snug. It does not slide from side-to-side or front-to-back.
  • Level. It is square on top of your head, covering the top of the forehead. It does not tilt in any direction.
  • Stable. The chinstrap keeps the helmet from rocking in any direction. Chinstraps should be replaced if any part of the buckle breaks. Otherwise, a helmet may fly off in an accident.

It's also important to choose the right type of helmet for the activity you are doing. Ecah type of helmet is designed to protect you from the impacts you are more likely to experience during a specific sport or activity. Wearing the wrong helmet may mean your head and brain are not properly protected if you fall or crash, making it more likely that you will suffer an injury.

Many bike helmets are ventilated, lightweight, and come in a variety of colors. Choose a helmet that motorists will see.

Children and Helmets

Young children are particularly vulnerable to head injuries because they have proportionally larger heads and higher centers of gravity, and their coordination is not fully developed. It is more difficult for children to avoid obstacles when biking, sledding, in-line skating, skiing, or doing other activities.

Children 5 to 14 years of age have the highest injury rate of all bicycle riders, and bike accidents are a leading cause of death for children.

When buying a helmet for your child, be sure to choose a helmet that fits your child now, not one to grow into. Likewise, be sure to purchase a new helmet if the one you are currently using becomes too small for your growing child.

Tips to help children understand the importance of wearing helmets:

  • Teach by example. Adults should always wear helmets when doing activities that have potential for collision.
  • Be aware that your child is more likely to wear a helmet if they like the way it looks.

Bike helmets save lives and prevent injuries, but in a few situations, they are not appropriate:

  • Children should not wear helmets when they climb trees or play on playground equipment. A helmet may get stuck on a tree or piece of equipment and strangle a child.
  • Because a baby's neck muscles may not be strong enough to support a helmet, do not ride a bike at all with a child under the age of 1 year.

Ski Helmets

Head injuries can occur during skiing, and when they occur, they can be devastating. Helmets are sport-specific, so do not wear a bike helmet on the slopes. Ski helmets should be worn.

Last Reviewed

August 2022

Contributed and/or Updated by

Jocelyn Ross Witstein, MD, FAAOS

Peer-Reviewed by

Thomas Ward Throckmorton, MD, FAAOS

AAOS does not endorse any treatments, procedures, products, or physicians referenced herein. This information is provided as an educational service and is not intended to serve as medical advice. Anyone seeking specific orthopaedic advice or assistance should consult his or her orthopaedic surgeon, or locate one in your area through the AAOS Find an Orthopaedist program on this website.